To those of you who submitted Latin questions I say, “Thank you.” Here are some answers to some frequently asked questions:
What is the difference between the dative and the accusative plus the preposition ad?
The dative is used as the indirect object with verbs of giving, showing and telling, and their synonyms or antonyms. For example, I give money (the direct object) to James (the indirect object). The dative is usually going to be a person (and sometimes an animal). Think of a sentence with the dative as one in which the subject is standing still while handing or saying something to someone else.
Use ad plus the accusative when you want to show motion towards something or someone. For example, when you are walking, running, sending, et cetera something to someone.
Try these sentences—should they use the dative or ad + accusative?
(a) Fabulam ______________ narrat.
(b) _____________________ ambulat.
Sentence (a) has the verb narrat, which means “he, she, or it tells.” We know that verbs of giving, showing and telling, and their synonyms and antonyms, require the dative to follow them. Therefore, sentence (a) should use a dative.
Sentence (b) has the verb ambulat in it, meaning “he, she, or it walks.” Walking is motion, therefore, it should have the construction ad + the accusative.
What is the difference between us/um fourth principal parts?
Latinists discuss this difference much more than is necessary. The fourth principal part is used for the supine and the perfect passive participle. The –us form is the masculine perfect passive participle. Translated, it would mean “having been _________ed” or “______ed” (for example, “having been instructed” or “having been fed”).
The supine, ending with –um, is a bit scary so do not dwell on it. It is used with verbs of motion to express purpose.
Do not get overwhelmed by the fourth principal part. Students should memorize it, but should not worry if they do not understand it perfectly.
How should I make my Latin notebook (this is in response to my article from last month)?
From Lanelle Lowe, Challenge A Director:
As a result of Kathy Sheppard’s Latin article, some individuals were interested in knowing how I organize a spiral-bound notebook in which my Challenge A students decline and conjugate their vocabulary words. This spiral-bound notebook is an example of a tool you could use to help your students be dialectic with the words they are learning each week by helping the students sort and arrange the words into their various categories. It should not be confused with or replace the notebook that is recommended on page 15 of the Guide for students to use for their Latin seminars. For my students this year, the spiral-bound notebook described below will simply be a fifth section of the larger Latin notebook that is recommended on page 15.
My students’ spiral-bound notebooks for Challenge A Henle First Year Latin will have ten tabs:
• First, second, third, fourth, and fifth declension nouns will each have a tab.
• First and second declension adjectives will have a tab together.
• Third declension adjectives will have another tab.
• First conjugation verbs and second conjugation verbs will each have their own tabs.
• The last tab would be for indeclinable words (prepositions, adverbs, conjunctions, interjections, and so on).
In the notebook, students write the vocabulary word behind the appropriate tab, its lesson number, and English definition. Underneath it, they decline the noun or adjective or conjugate the verb. (See pages 5 – 13 of the Henle Grammar book for declining nouns, pages 15 – 19 for declining adjectives, and page 44 for conjugating verbs.) The indeclinable words are written like the vocabulary entries. The students also color code their flashcards to correspond with the tabs in their notebooks as another means of visually remembering the categories to which the vocabulary words belong. To help the students remember the gender of first and second declension, you could use a pink tab for first and a blue tab for second. The tabs that have worked well for this are the Post-it Durable Filing/Index Tabs. They can be found at any area office store. I use the solid colored tabs for nouns and adjectives and the tabs with a strip of color at the top of the tab for the verbs. The indeclinable words get a tab with squiggly lines on it. Based on the vocabulary words in Lessons 1- 10 (found on pages 111 – 116) of the Challenge A Guide, you will need to figure out how many words belong behind each tab and therefore how many pages you would designate for each category.
Why should we study Latin?
Latin is an excellent subject to integrate all subjects. Latin vocabulary is the vocabulary of all subjects. Latin grammar reinforces English grammar. Latin helps train the brain to think logically for math, science, and logic. Latin increases students’ reading comprehension, spelling, and ease of memorization. I hope the study of Latin blesses you as it has blessed me.